The Pauline Chapel

The Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major

In the dome of the Pauline Chapel at Santa Maria Maggiore, the fresco of the Madonna Immacolata, a work from 1610 by Ludovico Cigoli, testifies how the Church was not initially against Galilei. A year after the invention of the looking glass, the painter from Tuscany, a friend of the astronomer, painted spots on the moon, in a naturalistic depiction based on the discoveries of  Galileo.